Tuesday, July 1, 2014

It May Take Guts to Cure Diabetes

Human GI Cells Retrained to Produce Insulin

Human gut cells expressing insulin
Human gastrointestinal cells from patients were engineered to express insulin (fluorescent green) in the lab. (Image by Columbia University Medical Center.)

New York, NY (June 30, 2014) — By switching off a single gene, scientists at Columbia University’s Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center have converted human gastrointestinal cells into insulin-producing cells, demonstrating in principle that a drug could retrain cells inside a person’s GI tract to produce insulin.

The research was reported today in the online issue of the journal Nature Communications.
“People have been talking about turning one cell into another for a long time, but until now we hadn’t gotten to the point of creating a fully functional insulin-producing cell by the manipulation of a single target,” said the study’s senior author, Domenico Accili, MD, the Russell Berrie Foundation Professor of Diabetes (in Medicine) at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC).

The finding raises the possibility that cells lost in type 1 diabetes may be more easily replaced through the reeducation of existing cells than through the transplantation of new cells created from embryonic or adult stem cells.

For nearly two decades, researchers have been trying to make surrogate insulin-producing cells for type 1 diabetes patients. In type 1 diabetes, the body’s natural insulin-producing cells are destroyed by the immune system.

Although insulin-producing cells can now be made in the lab from ......

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